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Full text of "Apple cultivars for juice and cider production."

1^1 Agriculture 



Canada 

Research Direction generate 
Branch de la recherche 

Technical Bulletin 1988-6E 



/ 1 



REG; , 0N 

LET; RTA 




Apple cultivars for juice and 
cider production 




V3D.M 
Q.ZJZ 
R 6 



Canada 



5' Fl : 198Sf 1 

5 CANADA *5*- UI - 



Apple cultivars for juice and 
cider production 



W.P. MOHR 

Smithfield Experimental Farm 

Trenton, Ont. 

Technical Bulletin 1988-6E 
Smithfield Technical Bulletin No. 7 



Research Branch 
Agriculture Canada 
1988 



Copies of this publication are available from 

Superintendent 

Smithfield Experimental Farm 

Trenton, Ont. 

K8V 5R5 

Produced by Research Program Service 

©Minister of Supply and Services Canada 
Cat. No.: A54-8/1988-6E 
ISBN: 0-662-16103-3 

Egalement disponible en frangais sous le titre 

Cuhivars de pommes pour la production de jus et de cidre 



The dots on the map represent Agrkulture 
Canada research establishments. 



CONTENTS 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...Iv 

SUMMARY Iv 

INTRODUCTION I 



CULTIVARS 



0-521 3 

0-528 3 

0-533 3 

0-544 4 

0-546 4 

0-5410 4 

0-5412 5 

0-551 5 

0-564 5 

0-591 6 

0-621 6 

0-622 6 

0-623 7 

0-632 7 

0-637 8 

0-6310 8 

0-641 8 

0-642 9 

0-6412 9 

0-6413 9 

0-6421 10 

0-6422 10 

0-654 10 

0-66 1 II 

0-662 II 

0-663 II 

0-664 12 

0-665 12 

0-666 12 

0-6610 13 

0-6611 13 

0-6616 13 

0-6617 14 

0-6619 14 

50-07-02 14 



52-04-59 15 

53-04-0 1 A 15 

54-46A-I I 15 

59-55- 1 26 16 

60-03-07 16 

62-28-09 16 

62-32-37 17 

BC 1 0C-6- 12 17 

CBR I T29 17 

CBR4T29 18 

CCR4T20 18 

Co-op I 18 

Co-op 7 19 

Co-op 8 19 

P 1 673- 1 19 

Bancroft , 20 

Br I tego Id 20 

Brown's Apple 20 

Cortland 21 

Cox's Orange Pippin 21 

Delicious, Golden C-449 21 

Delicious, Hardlspur 22 

Delicious, Miller Sturdeespur ....22 

Delicious, Redspur 22 

Delicious, Starkrlmson 23 

Emp I re 23 

Fameuse (Snow) 23 

Geneva 24 

George 24 

Golden Russet 24 

Gutt i n gen 25 

Honeygo Id 25 

I dared 26 

Jerseymac 26 

Kestre I 26 



Llndel 27 

Lobo 27 

Loyal 1st 27 

Macfree 28 

Macspur 28 

Mcintosh 28 

Melba 29 

Molra 29 

Murray 29 

Mutsu 30 

Northern Spy 30 

Paulared 31 

Prima 31 

Primegold 31 

Qulnte 32 

Richelieu 32 

Rouvllle 32 

Sandel 33 

SInta 33 

Sir Prize 33 

Smoothee 34 

Spartan 34 

Splgold 34 

Spljon 35 

Stoke Red 35 

Summerred 35 

Sungold 36 

Tremlett's Bitter 36 

Trent 36 

Vista Bel la 37 

West Virginia 

Red York 37 

Yarllngton 38 



SUMMARY OF PROMISING CULTIVARS TESTED 38 



IV 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Drs. R.L. Granger and G.L. Rousselle supplied fruit samples, as well as 
information on the samples, from the research station at Saint- Jean-sur-Richelieu, 
Que. At the Smithfield Experimental Farm, R.G. Adair provided very capable 
technical assistance in the early years of the study and G.M. Jamieson and 
D.J. Craven, in later years. J. Warner supplied information on the 
characteristics of cultivars of trees and fresh fruit grown at Smithfield. 



SUMMARY 



This publication summarizes our evaluation of apple cultivars for 
properties important in the commercial production of juice and cider. Named 
varieties and promising selections grown at the Smithfield Experimental Farm, 
Trenton, Ont., and at the Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu Research Station, Que., up 
to and including the 1987 crop year, are included. Scab-resistant lines have 
been of particular interest because of their potential for reducing production 
costs. Several of these can be compared favorably with older standard 
cultivars in attributes of quality and other properties affecting general 
performance for juice and cider production. 



INTRODUCTION 



Apple cultivars grown at the Smithfield Experimental Farm have been 
evaluated yearly since 1959 for their commercial processing potential. Until 
the late 1970s, the emphasis was on their performance as sauce and sliced 
packs. In recent years, more attention has been given to their potential for 
juice production. During the 1970s, fruit grown in the apple breeding program 
at Saint-Jean, Que., was delivered to Smithfield for assessment of juice 
properties of interest to cider makers. Cultivars included in this 
publication are still grown at either or both of these locations. A few other 
cultivars grown elsewhere are also included. In each case, properties 
important in juice and cider production are reported. The cultivar's 
suitability for other markets is also briefly stated. 

After they were picked, the apples grown at Smithfield were placed in 
refrigerated storage at 0°C. Samples were examined and tested periodically 
for firmness in order to assess storage properties. The fruit was processed 
when it reached a firmness index of 6.0-6.5 kg on a fruit pressure tester 
fitted with an 11-mm tip. Some of the fruit samples received from other 
locations were past optimum maturity when received and processed. Condition 
of the fruit at time of processing is indicated and should be considered when 
assessing various properties of the juice. Also, the number of years each 
cultivar was tested should be taken into account in assessing the reliabilty 
of our evaluation: some were tested for several years, others for only 1 or 2 
years. The evaluations are based on results up to and including the 1987 crop 
year. 

In making juice, the apples were chopped in a comminuting machine 
("Fitzmill", model D, W.J. Fitzpatrick Company, Chicago, 111.), mixed with a 
press aid, and pressed ("Willmes Presser", type 60, Josef Willmes, 1 Bensheim 
Hessen, Germany); the juice was clarified using pectolytic enzyme at 15°C. 
Since 1982 the press aid has been 3% (w/w) rice hulls, as currently used by 
the industry in Ontario. Before 1982 a mixture of 1.5% rice hulls and 0.5% 
shredded bleached paper was used, corresponding to popular industry practice 
at that time. No other pre-press treatments involving use of enzymes combined 
with heating and holding the mash to increase juice yields were employed. 
(For information on these special treatments to increase juice recovery, see 
W.P. Mohr and R.G. Adair 1979, Juice Extraction Studies With Apples, 
Agriculture Canada, Smithfield Experimental Farm, Technical Bulletin No. 1). 
The pressing cycle and all other steps in the pressing operation were carried 
out according to a standardized procedure. Details are given in the 
publication mentioned above. 

The terms "low", "medium", "high", and "very high", describing the 
content of soluble solids, titratable acidity, and tannin are used to indicate 
the following levels. 



I The use of trade names is for convenience only and does not imply an 
endorsement by Agriculture Canada. 



Level 




Soluble so 


lids 


Titratable 


ac 


id 


Tannin 
(g/L) 


Low 




<10.5 




<0.4 






<1.0 


Medium 




10.5-13.0 




0.4-0.7 






1.0- 2.0 


High 




13.0-14.5 




0.7-0.9 






2.0- 3.0 


Very hi 


.gh 


>14.5 




>0.9 






>3.0 



For purposes of this report, a cultivar's juice or cider potential is probably 
best considered from the standpoint of its usefulness in blending with other 
available fruit, usually fresh-market types and culls containing lower than 
desirable levels of acid, tannin, and soluble solids. Therefore, cultivars 
high in these three properties are usually sought for upgrading blends. The 
individual levels of soluble solids, titratable acid, and tannin are important 
and must be assessed by processors for their own particular products. The 
sugar-to-acid ratio, which is also reported, would be of interest only if the 
product is made from a single cultivar. Desirable properties of flavor in the 
finished product usually correspond with a sugar-to-acid ratio of 25+5, 
assuming that the level of soluble solids is in an acceptable range. 

Excellent, good, fair, and poor ratings are used throughout the report to 
assess the other juice properties of interest. These can be defined as 

follows. 



Rating 



Recovery 
(%, w/w) 



Color 



Flavor 



Excellent 
Good 
Fair 
Poor 



>75% 
70-75$ 
65-70$ 
<65% 



Bright intense yellow 
Yellow, light amber 
Lacking in color, dark amber 
Dull, dark, pink, orange 



Intense, normal 
Moderate, normal 
Mild, normal 
Flat, off, perfumy 



CULTIVARS 



0-521 

Melba x R6T68 (includes Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821). 
From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 

Has been grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. Tree produces heavily. Harvested late September. Fruit soft 
(pressure test sometimes less than 5.0 kg) when processed late 
November; should be processed in October. Tested 6 years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Low to medium soluble solids. Medium to high 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 16. Low to medium tannin. Good to 
excellent color. Good flavor. Good overall juice rating. 

Because of its high-acid tart flavor and other good properties, it is 
useful for upgrading more bland-tasting cultivars. For the same reason, it 
could be useful in sauce blends. Not suitable for sliced packs or the fresh 
market. 



0-528 

Melba x R6T68 (includes Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821). 
From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 

Has been grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Saint- Jean. Tree does not bear heavily. Harvested mid October. Fruit soft 
(pressure test less than 5.0 kg) when processed late November; should be 
processed no later than mid November. Limited juicing information obtained, 2 
years. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 18. Low tannin. Good color. Good flavor. Fair general 
rating for juice. 

Because orchard yield and juice recovery are not high, its potential for 
juice is only fair. Limited potential for sauce and sliced packs, and not 
suitable for fresh market. 



0-533 

Mcintosh x R14T60 (includes Wealthy and Malus pumila ). From Ottawa 
breeding program; selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 



Has been grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. At Saint-Jean, tree has yielded well on dwarfing rootstocks and 
is being considered for naming. Harvested mid September. Soft (pressure test 
5.0 kg) when processed; should be processed no later than mid October. Tested 
3 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Low soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 14. Low tannin. Good color. Good flavor. 

Low potential for juice production as well as for sauce and sliced packs. 
Considered good for fresh market when grown at Saint-Jean but not at 
Smithfield. 



0-544 

Mcintosh x Dg 20-9 (includes Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 
821). From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 

Has been grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Saint-Jean. Harvested late September to early October. Processed late 
November when its pressure test was 5.5 kg. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. High soluble solids. Low titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 27. Low tannin. Poor color. Poor to fair, sweet flavor. 

Low potential for juice, sliced packs, and fresh market but acceptable for 
sauce. 



0-546 

Mcintosh x Dg 22-81 (includes Rome Beauty, Jonathan, and Malus floribunda 
821). From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. At Saint- Jean it was considered for 
introduction, but tree has poor shape, does not yield heavily, and picking 
season is too late under Quebec's conditions. Harvested late October. 
Processed December to mid January (pressure test 5.0 kg). Tested 2 years for 
juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 19. Low tannin. Fair color. Fair flavor. 

Low potential for juice production. Barely acceptable for sauce and 
sliced packs. Little value for fresh market. 



0-5410 

Mcintosh x Dg 20-9 (includes Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 
821). From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 



Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Tree bears well. Harvested mid 
September. Processed early November when fruit pressure tested 5.4 kg. 
Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 19. Low tannin. Good color. Good flavor. 

Fair to good potential for juice but more than one season 1 s results 
needed. Acceptable sauce and sliced packs. Of little value for fresh market. 



0-5412 

Mcintosh x Dg 22-81 (includes Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 
812) . From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Ottawa. Scab-resistant. 

Has been grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. Tree bears well and is cold-hardy at Saint-Jean. Harvested late 
September to mid October. Processed late November to mid January (pressure 
test 6.5 kg throughout this period). Tested 3 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield and pulp settling. Medium soluble solids. Low to medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 20. Medium tannin. Fair to good 
color. Fair flavor. 

Fair potential for juice production. Acceptable for sauce. Barely 
acceptable for slices. Of little use for fresh market. 



0-551 

49-36-39 (includes Malus pumila ) x Mcintosh. From Ottawa breeding 
program; selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield but Smithfield plans to remove trees. 
Harvested mid to late September. Slightly soft (pressure test 4.9 kg) when 
processed; should be processed early November. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. Low to 
medium tannin. Fair color. Fair flavor. 

Low potential for juice. Data on sauce and sliced pack not available. 
Not useful for fresh market. 



0-564 

Mcintosh x 10-147 Dg 20-9 (includes Malus floribunda 821). From Ottawa 
breeding program; selected at Ottawa. Scab-resistant. 



Grown at Smithfield; old trees removed but new trees have been budded in 
nursery. Harvested early October. Processed mid November when fruit 
condition was good (pressure test 6.0 kg). Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Excellent pulp settling property. Medium soluble 
solids. High titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 14. Good color. Fair 
flavor. 

Fair to good potential for juice but more testing necessary. Low 
potential for sauce, slices, and fresh market. 



0-591 

49-121E (includes Malus floribunda 821) x Mcintosh. From Ottawa breeding 
program; selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. At Saint- Jean the tree is fairly 
productive but cold-tender and very sensitive to European canker. Harvested 
early October. Processed early November when fruit was in good condition 
(pressure test 5.5-6.0 kg). Tested 4 years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Medium soluble solids. High titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 15. Good color. Good flavor. 

Good potential for juice production, where its high acidity and other 
suitable qualities could be useful in blends. Acceptable sauce and sliced 
packs. Not useful for fresh market. 



0-621 

0-521 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Mcintosh. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant . 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Harvested late September. Slightly 
soft (pressure test 5.0 kg) when processed; should be processed late 
November. Tested 4 years for juice. 

Poor juice yield. Medium soluble solids. High titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 15. Low to medium tannin. Fair color. Good flavor. 
Aromatic. 

Fair potential for juice. Limited usefulness for sauce, slices, or fresh 
market. 



0-622 



0-521 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 



Mcintosh. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Harvested late September to early 
October. Fruit sometimes slightly soft (pressure test 4.5-6.0 kg) when 
processed throughout November; should be processed early November. Tested 6 
years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Excellent pulp settling. Medium to high soluble 
solids. High titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 15. Low to medium 
tannin. Fair to good juice color. Good flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. Limited potential for sauce. Not suitable for 
sliced pack or fresh market. 



0-623 

0-521 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Mcintosh. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Harvested late September. Slightly 
soft (pressure test 5.0 kg) when processed; best processed late November to 
late December. Tested 3 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 23. Low to medium tannin. Poor color. Good flavor. 
Aromatic. 

Fair potential for juice. Low potential for sauce or slices. Not 
suitable for fresh market. 



0-632 

Mcintosh x 0-525 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus 
floribunda 821). From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant . 

Has been grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. Harvested late September to early October. Fruit condition 
acceptable (pressure test 5.5 kg) when processed; best processed mid 
November. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. Excellent pulp settling. Medium to high 
soluble solids. High to very high titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 15 
Poor color. Poor to fair flavor. 



Except for lack of color, appears to have potential for juice. Canned 
juice appeared amber; a frozen unpasteurized sample turned pink, which was 
odd. Needs further testing. Potential for other markets not determined. 



0-637 

Mcintosh x 0-525 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus 
floribunda 821). From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant . 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Harvested early October. Good fruit 
condition (pressure test 5.8 kg) when processed late November. Tested for 
juice 2 years. 

Good juice yield. Good pulp settling. Medium soluble solids. High 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 14. Good color. Good flavor. Aromatic 

Good potential for juice. Fair potential for sauce and slices. Although 
quite acid, may have potential for fresh market. 



0-6310 

0-522 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Mcintosh. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant . 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Harvested late September. Good fruit 
condition (pressure test 6.0 kg) when processed mid November. Tested 3 years 
for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 21. Good color. Good flavor. 

Fair to good potential for juice. Data on sauce and slices not 
available. Limited value for fresh market. 



0-641 

0-527 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Lobo. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Tree is productive. Harvested late 
September. Fruit soft (pressure test 4.9 kg) when processed; should be 
processed early December. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. Good pulp settling. Medium soluble solids. 
Medium to high titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 18. Good color. Poor to 
good flavor. 



May have good potential for juice but several properties must be checked 
in further tests. Not evaluated for sauce and sliced packs. Limited use for 
fresh market. 



0-642 

Mcintosh x 0-522 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus 
floribunda 821). From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant . 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Tree is productive. Harvested early 
October. Good fruit condition (pressure test 6.0 kg) when processed early 
November. Tested 3 years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Excellent pulp settling. Medium soluble solids. 
Medium titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 17. Low tannin. Good color. 
Fair flavor. 

Good potential for juice, but check flavor in further tests. Not 
evaluated for sauce and sliced packs. Not useful for fresh market. 

0-6412 

Mcintosh x 0-522 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus 
floribunda 821). From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant . 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Harvested early October. Good fruit 
condition (pressure test 6.0 kg) when processed late November. Tested 1 year 
for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium to high soluble solids. Medium titratable 
acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 21. Good color. Fair flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. Good to excellent sauce (bright intense yellow, 
grainy texture, excellent flavor) but poor for slices. Insufficient data on 
fresh market use. 



0-6413 

0-527 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Lobo. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Harvested early October. Slightly 
soft when processed; best processed late November. Tested 4 years for juice. 



10 



Fair juice yield. Good pulp settling. Medium soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 25. Good color. Fair flavor. 

Fair to good potential for juice. Good for sauce and sliced packs. 
Limited use for fresh market. 



0-6421 

0-527 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Lobo. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Harvested early October. Good firm 
condition (pressure test 6.7 kg) when processed in October. Tested 1 year for 
juice. 

Fair juice yield. Excellent pulp settling. Low soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 15. Fair color. Poor flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. No available information on suitability for 
sauce, slices, or fresh market. 



0-6422 

0-545 (includes Mcintosh, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) 
x Lobo. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant, 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Harvested early October. Good 
condition (pressure test 6.0 kg) when processed early December. Tested 4 
years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 23. Good color. Good flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. Fair to good for sauce. Unsuitable for sliced 
pack (poor wholeness retention). 



0-654 

0-522 (includes Melba, Delicious, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus 
floribunda 821) x Sandel. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at 
Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Harvested late September. Good 
condition (pressure test 6.0 kg) when processed in November. Stores well 
until January. Tested 1 year for juice. 



11 



Fair juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium to high soluble solids. 
Medium titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 21. Good color. Fair flavor. 

Fair to good potential for juice. Good for sauce. Fair sliced. May have 
limited fresh market potential as a yellow-skinned cultivar. 



0-661 

0-521 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Delicious. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant . 

Has been grown at the Saint-Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. Harvested early October. Good condition (pressure test 6.1 kg) 
when processed in October, soft (less than 5.0 kg pressure test) when 
processed in November. Tested 4 years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium to high soluble solids. 
High titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 13. Fair to good color. Poor to 
fair flavor. 

Juice potential is fair (flavor poor but other properties good). Fair for 
sauce and slices. High acidity limits usefulness for fresh market. 

0-662 

0-521 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Delicious. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant. 

Currently grown at Smithfield. Harvested early October. Fruit condition 
good (pressure test 6.0 kg) when processed in March. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Pulp settled well. High soluble solids. Low to medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 32. Good color. Fair flavor. 

Fair potential for juice but needs further testing. Promising as a fall 
and winter fresh market apple. 

0-663 

0-521 x T3919. Parents include Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, Delicious, 
Mcintosh, and Malus floribunda 821. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at 
Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 



12 



Has been grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. Harvested early October. Good condition (pressure test 5.8 
kg)when processed late November. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 20. Good color. Poor to fair flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. Fair for sauce and slices. 

0-664 

0-521 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Delicious. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Harvested early October. Good firm 
condition November to January (pressure test 6.5-7.6 kg). 

Fair juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 22. Fair color. Fair flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. Good for sauce, poor for slices. Limited use 
for fresh market. 



0-665 

0-522 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Delicious. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Harvested early October. Good 
condition (pressure test 6.3 kg) when processed late October. Tested 2 years 
for juice. 

Good juice yield. Excellent pulp settling. Low soluble solids. Low 
tomedium titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 26. Good color. Poor flavor. 

Fair potential for juice (downgraded only because of flavor). Good for 
sauce and slices. 



0-666 

0-521 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Delicious. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant. 



13 



Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Harvested early October. Processed 
when fruit in good firm condition (pressure test 6.9 kg); best processed late 
January. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Low to medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 19. Good color. Fair flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. Information on other uses not yet available. 

0-6610 

0-521 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Delicious. From Ottawa breeding program; selected at Smithfield. 
Scab-resistant . 

Has been grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. Harvested early October. Good condition when processed January. 
Tested 2 years for juice. 

Poor juice yield. High soluble solids. Medium titratable 
acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 28. Good color. Good flavor. 

Poor to fair potential for juice (downgraded because of low yield). No 
information available on sauce and slices. Not useful for fresh market. 



0-6611 

0-521 x T-3919. Parents include Delicious, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, 
Mcintosh, Melba, and Malus floribunda 821. From Ottawa breeding program; 
selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Smithfield. Harvested late September. Good fruit condition 
(pressure test 5.9 kg) when processed mid November. Tested 2 years for juice, 

Good juice yield. Pulp settles well. Medium soluble solids. Very high 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 12. Good color. Fair flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. May have some use to upgrade acidity in 
blends. Poor potential for sauce and slices. 

0-6616 

0-521 x T-3919. Parents include Delicious, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, 
Mcintosh, Melba, and Malus floribunda 821. From Ottawa breeding program; 
selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 



14 



Grown at Smithfield. Harvested early October. Good condition (pressure 
test 6.5 kg) when processed mid December. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Excellent pulp settling. Medium soluble solids. 
Medium titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 20. Good color. Good flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. No information available on sauce and slices. 
Not useful as a fresh market apple. 



0-6617 

0-521 x T-3919. Parents include Delicious, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, 
Mcintosh, Melba, and Malus floribunda 821. From Ottawa breeding program; 
selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Smithfield. Harvested mid October. Good condition (pressure 
test 6.2 kg) when processed late December. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Low to medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 22. Good color. Fair flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. No information available on sauce and slices. 
Not useful as a fresh market apple. 



0-6619 

0-521 x T-3919. Parents include Delicious, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, 
Mcintosh, Melba, and Malus floribunda 821. From Ottawa breeding program; 
selected at Smithfield. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Smithfield. Harvested early October. Good condition (pressure 
test 6.2 kg) when processed late January. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 19. Fair color. Poor flavor. 

Poor to fair potential for juice. No information available on sauce or 
slices. 



50-07-02 

Antonovka x 262829-2-2 (includes Malus floribunda 821). Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean. Upright vigorous tree, very productive. Harvested 
mid October. Good condition when processed in February. Tested 2 years for 
juice. 



15 



Fair juice yield. Low to medium soluble solids. Variable titratable 
acid: low one year, very high the other. Sugar-to-acid ratio was 23 and 10 
in the 2 years tested. Low tannin. Good color. Poor flavor. 

Low potential for juice. No information available on sauce and slices. 

52-04-59 

Melba x R6T68 (includes Malus floribunda 821). Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint- Jean. Tree is sensitive to canker and mites and very 
sensitive to cold injury. Harvested early September. Fruit slightly soft 
(pressure test 4.9 kg) when processed in November; should be processed late 
October. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 27. Low tannin. Fair color. Fair flavor. 

Fair juice potential. No information available on sauce and slices. 

53-04-01A 

Mcintosh x R7T45 (includes Malus floribunda 821). Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean. Harvested early September. Fruit soft (pressure 
test 4.3 kg) when processed in November; should be processed in October. 
Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Low titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio above 40 (our sample much higher because of past condition 
of fruit, resulting in low acidity). Medium tannin. Fair color. Poor flavor. 

Low potential for juice. No information available for sauce and slices. 
Good for fresh market. 

54-46A-11 

Mcintosh x R7T45 (includes Malus floribunda 821). Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean. Tree is productive. Harvested mid October. Fruit 
in good condition when processed December and January. Tested 2 years for 
juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Low to medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 26. Medium tannin. Poor to fair color. Good flavor. 



16 



Low potential for juice. No information available on sauce and slices. 
Excellent fresh market quality. 

59-55-126 

49-121E (includes Malus floribunda 821) x Mcintosh. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean. Tree is cold-hardy. Harvested early October. Fruit 
stores well until April; in good condition when processed mid November. 
Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 16. Low tannin. Good color. Very poor flavor. 

No potential for juice. No information available for sauce and slices. 
Acceptable fresh market quality. 

60-03-07 

52-05-33 (includes Malus atrosanguinea 804) x Mcintosh. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean. Tree is cold-hardy but a light bearer. Harvested 
mid September. Fruit soft when processed in November; should be processed in 
October. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 16. Low tannin. Good color. Good flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. No information available for sauce and slices. 
Limited value for fresh market. 

62-28-09 

0-521 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Mcintosh. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean. Tree moderately productive, sensitive to canker. 
Harvested early October. Short storage life. Fruit soft when processed early 
November; should be processed in October. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Good juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 24. Low tannin. Fair color. Good flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. No information available for sauce and slices. 
No fresh market potential (poor quality). 



17 



62-32-37 

52-05-312 (includes Malus atrosanguinea 804) x Mcintosh. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint- Jean. Tree is cold-hardy and productive. Harvested late 
August. Fruit soft when processed in September; should be processed August to 
early September. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Pulp did not settle well. Medium soluble solids. 
Medium tit ratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 18. Low to medium tannin. 
Excellent color. Fair flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. No information available for sauce and slices. 
Limited value for fresh market (quality just fair). 

BC10C-6-12 

Winesap x Golden Delicious. Summerland cross 19^4, selected 1956. 

Grown at Smithfield. Harvested mid October. Good fruit condition 
(pressure test 6.0 kg) when processed late November. Tested 3 years for juice, 

Fair to good juice yield. High to very high soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 29. Good color. Fair flavor. 

Fair to good potential for juice. Good sauce and fair sliced packs. 
Limited fresh market use. 



CBR1T29 

From breeding program at Purdue University, Indiana. Parents include 
Malus floribunda 821. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint- Jean. Tree moderately productive. Harvested mid 
September. Soft when processed in November; should be processed in October. 
Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. High soluble solids. High titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 16. Medium tannin. Fair color. Good flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. No information available on sauce and slices. 
No fresh market potential. 



18 



CBR4T29 

From breeding program at Purdue University, Indiana. Parents include 
Malus floribunda 821. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean. Tree a light bearer. Harvested mid October. Fruit 
very firm (pressure test 7.2 kg) when processed early February; could be 
processed throughout February and probably later. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 26. Low tannin. Fair color. Good flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. No information available on sauce and slices. 
Good fresh market potential (excellent quality). 



CCR4T20 

From breeding program at Purdue University, Indiana. Parents include 
Antonovka. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint- Jean. Tree moderately productive. Harvested late August. 
Fruit firm (pressure test 6.8 kg) when processed late September; should be 
processed early October. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Low to medium soluble solids. Very high titratable 
acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 11. Low tannin. Fair color. Good flavor. 

Fair potential for juice; might be useful where upgrading of acidity is 
needed in blends. No information available for sauce and slices. Not 
suitable for fresh market. 



Co-op 1 

Complex parentage including Starr, Wealthy, Melba, Red Rome, Jonathan, and 
Malus floribunda 821. From cooperative breeding programs at Indiana, 
Illinois, New Jersey, and United States Department of Agriculture experiment 
stations. Released 1967. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Sraithfield. Harvested mid September. Fruit in good condition 
(6.2 kg pressure test) when processed late October; could be processed early 
November as well. Tested 3 years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Excellent pulp settling. Medium soluble solids. High 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 14. Good to excellent color. Poor to 
fair flavor. 



19 



Good to excellent potential for juice (only flavor limiting). Fair for 
sauce. No information available on sliced pack. Not useful as a fresh market 
apple. 



Co-op 7 

Complex parentage including Starr, Wealthy, Melba, Red Rome, Jonathan, and 
Malus floribunda 821. From cooperative breeding programs at Indiana, 
Illinois, New Jersey, and United States Department of Agriculture experiment 
stations. Released 1972. Scab-resistant. 

Has been grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. Tree sensitive to cold injury. Harvested early September. Fruit 
in satisfactory condition (pressure test 5.4 kg) when processed late 
November. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Low soluble solids. Very low titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 38. Low tannin. Good color. Good flavor. Aromatic. 

Fair potential for juice. No information available for sauce and slices. 
Has potential as a fresh market apple. 

Co-op 8 

Complex parentage including Delicious, Jonathan, Golden Delicious, Red 
Gravenstein, Close, Edgewood, and Malus floribunda 821. From cooperative 
breeding programs at Indiana, Illinois, New Jersey, and United States 
Department of Agriculture experiment stations. Released around 1972. 
Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Harvested early October. Fruit soft 
when processed late November; should be processed late October. Tested 1 year 
for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Low to medium soluble solids. Very low titratable 
acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 39. Low tannin. Good color. Fair flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. No information available for sauce and slices. 
Limited fresh market potential. 

P1673-1 

From breeding program at Purdue University, Indiana. 

Has been grown at Saint-Jean, but not currently. Probably available from 
Indiana. Tree bears heavily biennially. Harvested mid October. Satisfactory 
fruit condition (pressure test 5.3 kg) when processed early November. Tested 
1 year for juice. 



20 



Good juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 19. Low tannin. Good color. Good flavor. 

Good potential for juice. No information available for sauce and slices 
Not useful for fresh market. 



Bancroft 

Forest x Mcintosh. From Ottawa breeding program, named 1935. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Tree resembles Mcintosh in habit, 
strong grower. As hardy as Mcintosh, bears at a young age. Harvested mid to 
late October. Fruit stores well until March. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Poor juice yield. High soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 29. Low tannin. 

Information on juice is too limited for a reliable assessment. Good for 
sauce, fair to good for slices. Acceptable for fresh market. 



Britegold 

0-522 (includes Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 821) x 
Sandel. Formerly 0-652. From Ottawa breeding program; selected and named at 
Smithfield in 1979. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Tree yields poorly. Harvested early 
October. Good fruit condition (pressure test 6.0 kg) when processed late 
October. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. High soluble solids. Very low (less than 0.1?) 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 119. Poor color. Poor flavor. 

No potential for juice. Fair for sauce, good for slices. Fresh use 
limited to growing in home gardens as a sweet dessert apple. 



Brown's Apple 

A "sharp" cider apple from the United Kingdom. 

Grown in the United Kingdom and at Saint-Jean. The fruit sample we 
processed was shipped by air from the United Kingdom. The fruit was 
small, slightly shrivelled, and unattractive when received. Processed early 
October (pressure test 5.3 kg). Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. High titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 13. Medium tannin. Poor color. Excellent flavor. 



21 



Low potential for juice but excellent for making cider; the fermented 
product has a distinctly clean flavor with no hint of the undesirable odd, 
ester-like flavors sometimes described as perfumy. Used to upgrade flavor, 
acidity, and tannin in cider blends. No information available for sauce and 
sliced pack. 



Cortland 

Ben Davis x Mcintosh. From New York Agricultural Experiment Station; 
introduced 1915. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Heavy feeder, bears annually. Fruit 
ripens over a longer period than Mcintosh. Harvested late September. Fruit 
soft when processed in November; should be processed mid to late October. 
Tested 4 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Low to medium titratable 
acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 26. Medium tannin. Good color. Good flavor. 
Aromatic. 

Fair to good potential for juice. In Ontario, poor to fair for sauce and 
sliced packs. Considered good for these packs in Quebec, where white packs 
are quite acceptable in the retail trade. Exceptionally slow to discolor on 
slicing and therefore useful in salads and other cold presentations. 

Cox's Orange Pippin 

From England, before 1857. Possibly a seedling of Ribston Pippin, which 
dates back to before 1700 in England; parentage unknown. 

Currently grown at Smithfield. Harvested late September. Satisfactory 
fruit condition (pressure test 5.5 kg) when processed mid November. Tested 2 
years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Pulp settled well. Very high soluble solids. High 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 20. Good color. Good flavor. Aromatic. 

Good potential for juice but further testing needed to verify. Not yet 
evaluated here for other packs. It is a well-known good-quality apple in the 
United Kingdom, used for various purposes. 

Delicious, Golden C-4M9 

Spur of Golden Delicious, a chance seedling from West Virginia, 1916. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Harvested mid October. Slightly soft 
when processed late December; could be processed earlier in December. 
Tendency to shrivel in storage. Tested 2 years for juice. 



22 



Fair juice yield. High soluble solids. Low to medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 30. Low tannin. Good to excellent color. Poor flavor. 
Aromatic. 

Fair potential for juice; further tests are needed to determine why juice 
has poor flavor and other packs have very good flavor. Good to excellent for 
sauce and slices, where flavor and color are excellent. Limited fresh market 
use. 



Delicious, Hardispur 

Whole-tree bud mutation of Starking Delicious. From Washington, 1958. 

Grown at Saint-Jean. Spur-type tree, cold-tender. Harvested mid 
October. Good fruit condition (pressure test 6.5 kg) when processed early 
February. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 23. Medium tannin. Fair color. Good flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. No information available for sauce and slices, 
A fresh market variety. 

Delicious, Miller Sturdeespur 

Whole-tree mutation found in Starking Delicious orchard near Cumberland 
Maryland, about 1953. 

Has been grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. Spur-type tree. Harvested mid October. Good fruit condition 
(pressure test 5.6 kg) when processed in December. Tested 3 years for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. Pulp settled well. High soluble solids. Low 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 51. Poor to fair color. Fair flavor. 

Poor to fair potential for juice. Good for sauce, fair to good for 
slices. A fresh market variety. 

Delicious, Redspur 

Whole tree mutation found in Starking Delicious orchard, Washington, 1954. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Spur-type tree. Harvested mid 
October. Good fruit condition (pressure test 5.8 kg) when processed early 
February. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Low titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio M8. Low tannin. Poor color. Very poor flavor. 



23 



Low potential for juice. No information available for sauce and slices. 
A fresh market variety. 



Delicious, Starkrimson 

Whole tree variation of Red (Starking?) Delicious found in Oregon 1953, 
introduced 1956. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Spur-type tree. Harvested mid 
October. Good fruit condition (pressure test 6.0-7.0 kg) when processed in 
late January and in February. Tested 6 years for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. Pulp settled well. High soluble solids. Low 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 47. Low tannin. Fair color. Fair 
flavor. 

Fair to good potential for juice. Fair to good for sauce, good for sliced 
pack. A fresh market variety. 



Empire 

Mcintosh x Delicious. From Geneva, New York, named 1966. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Tree semi-spur type, upright 
spreading, hardy, productive annually. Rivals Spartan. Harvested mid 
October. Good fruit condition (pressure test 6.3 kg) when harvested late 
December. Tested 5 years for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium soluble solids. 
Medium titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 23. Good to excellent color. 
Good flavor. Slightly aromatic. 

Good to excellent potential for juice. Good commercial processing 
potential for sauce and sliced packs. Good quality, much in favor currently 
for many uses. 

Fameuse (Snow) 

Parentage unknown. Thought to be Canadian; seed may have been brought 
from France by early settlers in the early 1700s; planted between the states 
of Vermont and New York. 

Grown at Saint-Jean. Extremely sensitive to scab. Biennial bearer. 
Harvested late September. Soft when processed in November; should be 
processed mid October. Tested 4 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Low soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 21. Low tannin. Good color. Good flavor. 



24 



Poor potential for juice, 
quality in Quebec. 



Poor for sauce and slices. Considered good 



Geneva (includes Mont Royal, an improved strain of Geneva) 

Open-pollinated seedling of Malus pumila . Originated in Ottawa, selected 
in 1928, introduced in 1930 as a rosybloom crabapple. Fair immunity to scab 
and resistant to several insect pests. 

Grown at Saint-Jean. Tree is oramental but less floriferous than other 
varieties of the rosybloom class. Hardy, yields well, early. Good pollinator 
for all-important Mcintosh. Harvested late August. Good fruit condition 
processed September to October. Pressure tests on crabapples of doubtful 
value. Tested 1 year (three replications) for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. Pulp settled well. Low soluble solids. High 
to very high titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 10. High tannin. Orange 
to red color difficult to rate, depending on end use. Good flavor. 

Probably no potential for juice but has some unique, interesting 
properties. Red-fleshed, it makes a pink-red juice and cider, which 
unfortunately turns an undesirable orange during later storage. This problem 
can be overcome by increasing the concentration of the red anthocyanin pigment 
in the form of a grape product to retain the pink-red color. Fermented cider 
had a good clean taste (not perfumy) and good astringency because of its high 
tannin. Excellent for jelly. Could be used for preparing attractive red 
apple rings, without added color, for salads or cocktails. Because of its 
rosy red flowers, the tree is used in ornamental plantings. 



George 

Open-pollinated seedling of Mcintosh. Originated in Edmonton, introduced 
1948. 

Grown at Smithfield. Vigorous, hardy, well-formed tree. Harvested early 
October. Good fruit condition (pressure test 6.0 kg) when processed late 
November. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Poor juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium soluble solids. Low 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 40. Excellent color. Fair flavor. 

Poor potential for juice based on the 1 year tested. Good for sauce and 
slices. 



Golden Russet 



Unknown parentage, England. Known as Reinette Grise in France. 



25 



Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Large tree, willowy branches, heavy 
feeder, long-lived, hardy. Harvested raid October. Good firm fruit (pressure 
test 8.0 kg) when processed late January; although pressure tests suggest it 
could be processed later than this, the fruit tends to shrivel excessively in 
storage. Tested 3 years for juice. 

Poor to fair juice yield. Pulp did not settle well. Very high soluble 
solids. Medium tit ratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 28. Low to medium 
tannin. Fair to good color. Fair flavor. 

Potential for juice is only fair, but it has been highly rated by some 
Quebec cider makers for specialty-pack apple "champagne" because of the 
excellent flavor of the fermented product. Widely used in blends for this 
purpose in Quebec. Good to excellent for sauce, where its bright yellow color 
and very grainy texture are used to upgrade color and texture in blends. Fair 
for sliced packs. 



Guttingen 

Grown in Switzerland as a cider apple. Obtainable from Dr. Walter Mu'ller 
or Mr. Klauss Gersback, Research Station Eidz Forschungsanstalt fur Obst. Wein 
und Gartenbau, ch 8820 Wadenswil, Switzerland. Formerly grown at Saint-Jean. 
Harvested raid September. Good firm fruit (pressure test 6.9 kg) when 
processed late November; could probably be processed through December. Tested 
1 year (two replications) for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Very high titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 12. Medium tannin. Excellent color. Good flavor. 

Good potential for juice. Could be useful to upgrade color, acidity, 
tannin, and flavor. No information available for sauce and slices. 



Honeygold 

Golden Delicious x Haralson. From Minnesota, 1969. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Vigorous tree, upright spreading, 
productive annually, hardy. Harvested early October. Good fruit condition 
(pressure test 6.0 kg) when processed late November. Tested 2 years for juice, 

Fair juice yield. Pulp settled well. High soluble solids. Low 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 38. Fair color. Fair flavor. 

Fair potential for juice (low acidity detracts from its juice value). Good 
for sauce, excellent for slices. Fruit quality inferior to Golden Delicious 
as a yellow-skinned fresh market apple. 



26 

Idared 

Jonathan x Wagener. From University of Idaho, named 1942. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Upright tree, productive, spurry, 
tends to be biennial, fruit shape affected by cold. Harvested mid October. 
Good firm fruit (pressure test 6.3 kg) when processed in January but can be 
processed December through June. Exceptionally long storage life and does 
not dehydrate noticeably. Tested 6 years for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. Medium to high soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 21. Medium tannin. Good to excellent 
color. Good to excellent flavor. 

Good potential for juice. Useful because of exceptional storage life and 
generally good qualities. Fair for sauce and slices. 

Jerseymac 

New Jersey 24 x Julyred. From New Jersey, introduced 1971. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Vigorous tree, upright spreading, 
precocious, hardy. Extremely sensitive to apple scab. Similar to Mcintosh but 
a month earlier. Harvested mid August. Soft when processed in November; 
should be processed about late September. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Pulp settled well. Low to medium soluble solids. 
Medium titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 17. Low to medium tannin. 
Excellent color. Fair to good flavor. Aromatic. 

Good potential for juice. No information available for sauce and slices. 
A good summer eating apple. 

Kestrel 

Macoun x New York Red Spy. From Kentville, N.S., 1976. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Vigorous tree, upright spreading, 
somewhat spurry, fruit shape oblate and slightly rough. Harvested late 
September. Good fruit condition (pressure test 5.7 kg) when processed mid 
November. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 21. Good color. Good flavor. 

Good potential for juice; warrants further testing. Good for sauce and 
slices. 



27 



Lindel 

Richared Delicious x Linda. Formerly T-397, from Agriculture Canada's 
Smithfield Experimental Farm program, 1971. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Vigorous tree, moderately upright 
growth habit, productive, cold-hardy. Harvested late October. Good firm 
fruit (pressure test 6.5 kg) when processed early December; in good condition 
for processing December and January. Tested 5 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 26. Low to medium tannin. Good color. 
Fair flavor. 

Fair to good juice potential. Good for sauce and sliced packs. Useful as 
a fresh market apple (good flavor and general quality). 



Lobo 

Open-pollinated Mcintosh. From Agriculture Canada's Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, 1930. 

Grown at Saint-Jean. Almost a spur type, usually bears annually. Fruit 
similar to Mcintosh, but when picked on time keeps better than Mcintosh. 
Extremely cold-hardy. Harvested mid to late September. Fruit soft when 
processed mid November (perhaps the result of picking too early; when 
optimally picked, should be in good condition for processing at least until 
Mcintosh's processing period of late October to mid November). Tested 4 years 
for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Low to medium soluble solids. Low to medium titratable 
acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 18. Low tannin. Good color. Good flavor. 

Fair potential for juice (more highly rated in Quebec where high yields of 
good-flavored juice have been reported). Poor for sauce and sliced packs. 



Loyalist 

Linda x Yellow Newtown. Formerly T-416, from Agriculture Canada's 
Smithfield Experimental Farm program, named in 1979. 

Has been grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. Harvested mid October. Good firm fruit (pressure test 
6.0-7.0 kg) when processed November through February. Stores exceptionally 
well without losing quality. Tested 8 years for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. High soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 25. Excellent color. Good flavor. 



28 



Good potential for juice. Good for sauce and sliced packs. Very useful 
cultivar, combining generally good qualities over a long storage period. 



Macfree 

Mcintosh x R18T40 (includes Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 
821). Formerly 0-532, from Ottawa breeding program, released 1974. 
Scab-resistant . 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Vigorous tree, spreading, 
productive. Somewhat cold-tender but survives most Quebec winters. Harvested 
mid October. Soft (pressure test less than 5.0 kg) when processed in 
December; should be processed about mid November. Tested 3 years for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Low to medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 26. Low tannin. Fair to good color. 
Good flavor. 

Fair to good potential for juice. Fair sauce, poor to fair slices. 
Acceptable fresh market quality, popular with some home gardeners. 



Macspur 

Compact spur mutant of Mcintosh. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Spur-type tree. Harvested late 
September. Fruit soft when processed late November; probably should be 
processed mid October to early November. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Poor juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 17. Fair to good color. Fair to good flavor. Aromatic. 

Fair potential for juice. Fair sauce, poor slices. 

Mcintosh 

Mcintosh was found growing as a seedling in Dundas County, Ont., in 1796; 
possibly a seedling of Fameuse. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Vigorous tree, heavy cropper. 
Harvested late September. Good fruit condition when processed late October to 
mid November. Tested 7 years for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable 
acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 20. Low tannin. Good color. Good flavor. 
Aromatic. 



29 



Good for juice production. Fair sauce, poor slices. A good-quality fresh 
market apple. Long-established popular cultivar. 



Melba 

Open-pollinated Mcintosh seedling, about 1924. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Vigorous tree, early bearer, 
productive, biennial, hardy. Harvested late August. Good fruit condition 
when processed early September, soft if left to process late September. 
Tested 1 year (three replications) for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. Pulp settled well. Low soluble solids 
(increases somewhat if the fruit is picked on time). High titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 11. Medium tannin. Excellent color. Good to excellent 
flavor. 

Good juice potential, useful for early production except for low soluble 
solids. Poor for sauce and slices based on the 1 year tested. 



Moira 

Mcintosh x Dg 22-81 (includes Jonathan and Malus floribunda 821). 
Formerly 0-548, from Ottawa breeding program, named at Smithfield in 1979. 
Scab-resistant . 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Vigorous tree, productive, 
cold-hardy. Harvested early October. Good fruit condition (pressure test 6.0 
kg) when processed early November to early December. Tested 3 years for juice, 

Good juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 21. Low tannin. Excellent color. Good 
flavor. Aromatic, slightly perfumy. 

Good potential for juice. Poor to fair for sauce and slices, mainly 
because of lack of color (not a problem with juice). Although short storage 
life, useful as a fall fresh market apple. 



Murray 

Mcintosh x 52-05-26 (includes Red Melba, Wolf River, and Malus 
atrosanguinea 804). Formerly 0-628, from Ottawa breeding program, named at 
Smithfield in 1979. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Productive tree, biennial-bearing, 
cold-hardy. Harvested late August to early September. Fruit firm (pressure 
test 6.5 kg) when processed early November but probably should have been 



30 



processed much earlier for better quality. (Notes by others evaluating fresh 
market quality mention a short storage life, 1-1.5 months.) Tested 1 year for 
juice. 

Fair juice yield. Low soluble solids. Very low titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 36. Good color. Poor flavor. 

Poor juice potential. Poor sauce and slices. A good-quality apple for 
the late August to early September fresh market. 



Mutsu 

A seedling of Golden Delicious x Indo. A triploid, from Japan, 1948. 
Known as Crispin in England. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Vigorous tree, upright spreading, 
spurry, lacks winterhardiness, very productive, very large fruit. Harvested 
late October. Good fruit condition (pressure test 6.0-6.5 kg) when processed 
mid January. Tested 3 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium to high soluble solids. 
Medium titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 26. Good color. Fair to good 
flavor. 

Fair to good potential for juice. Good to excellent sauce (bright yellow 
color a strong point), fair sliced packs. 

Northern Spy 

Parentage unknown. New York, about 1840. 

Has been grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. Vigorous tree, upright spreading, slow coming into bearing, late 
bloom, productive, somewhat biennial, generally considered hardy but tender in 
Quebec, weak crotches, somewhat resistant to scab, susceptible to bitter pit. 
Harvested late October. Good firm fruit when processed early January. 
Firmness holds well; usually have to press because of surface breakdown, not 
loss of firmness. Tested 9 years for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. Pulp settled well. High soluble solids. 
Medium titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 22. Low to medium tannin. Good 
color. Excellent flavor. 

Good cultivar for high quality juice production; used to upgrade other 
cultivars in juice blends. Excellent sauce and sliced packs. Excellent for 
cooking in the home. As it was 20-30 years ago, Northern Spy remains a 
high-quality standard cultivar for multi-use processing. 



31 



Paulared 

Unknown parentage. Michigan, 1967. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Upright tree, productive annually, 
hardy. Harvested late August. Good fruit condition (pressure test 6.5 kg) 
when processed early October; too soft when processed in November. Tested 2 
years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Excellent pulp settling. Medium soluble solids. High 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 14. Low tannin. Fair color. Good 
flavor. 

Good potential for juice. Poor to fair sauce, poor slices. Exceptional 
storage life for an early apple, one of the better good-quality early-season 
fresh market cultivars. 



Prima 

Complex parentage including Rome Beauty, Golden Delicious, and Malus 
floribunda 821. Formerly Co-op 2, from cooperative breeding programs at 
Indiana, Illinois, New Jersey, and United States Department of Agriculture 
experiment stations. Released 1967, named 1970. Scab-resistant. 

Has been grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. Tree is not winter-hardy. Harvested mid September. Good fruit 
condition (pressure test over 6.0 kg) when processed early November. Tested 3 
years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 19. Low tannin. Good color. Fair flavor. 

Fair to good potential for juice. Good for sauce and sliced packs. 
Winter injury to trees limits this cultivar's usefulness. 



Primegold 

Unknown parentage. Probably a chance seedling of Golden Delicious. 

Grown at Smithfield. Harvested early October. Good fruit condition 
(pressure test above 6.0 kg) when processed mid December. Tested 2 years for 
juice. 

Poor juice yield. Pulp settled well. High soluble solids. Low 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 37. Good color. Fair flavor. 

Low potential for juice. No information available for sauce and sliced 
packs. 



32 



Quinte 

Crimson Beauty x Red Melba. Released as T-441 in 1954 from Ottawa 
breeding program, selected at Smithfield, named 1964. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Susceptible to cedar apple rust. 
Tree is winter-hardy. Harvested early August. Soft when processed late 
August; should be processed early to mid August, soon after harvest. Tested 1 
year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Pulp did not settle well. Very low soluble solids. 
Very high titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 9. Medium tannin. Excellent 
color. Good flavor. 

Low potential for juice. Fair sauce and slices. Well known as one of the 
earliest apples but limited usefulness because of its short storage life and 
acid taste. 



Richelieu 

0-521 x 0-541. Parents include Melba, Mcintosh, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, 
and Malus floribunda 821. Formerly 0-635, from Ottawa breeding program, 
selected at Smithfield, named at Saint- Jean 1983. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Tree is precocious, bears annually, 
and is hardy (survived the severe Quebec winter of 1980-1981). Harvested mid 
September. Fruit slightly soft (pressure test 5.0 kg) when processed mid 
November; should be processed early November. Tested 3 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 20. Good color. Good flavor. Aromatic, 

Fair potential for juice. No information available for sauce and slices. 
Suitable for home gardener. 



Rouville 

52-05-312 (includes Red Melba, Wolf River, and Malus atrosanguinea 804) x 
Mcintosh. Formerly 0-627, from Ottawa breeding program, selected at 
Smithfield 1972, named at Saint-Jean 1983. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Tree is precocious, semi-spreading, 
semi-spur type, annually productive, hardy (survived the severe Quebec winter 
of 1980-1981). Harvested late August. Soft when processed early September; 
should be processed soon after harvest. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Medium soluble solids. Low to medium titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 20. Low tannin. Excellent color. Fair flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. No information available for sauce and slices. 



33 



Sandel 

Delicious x Sandow. Formerly T-3916, from Ottawa breeding program, tested 
in advanced trials at Smithfield and released 1978. 

Grown at Smithfield. Tree moderately vigorous, precocious, productive, 
moderately hardy. Harvested mid October. Good fruit condition (pressure 
test6.3 kg) when processed mid to late January. Stores well. Tested 2 years 
for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium soluble solids. Low 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 47. Fair color. Poor to fair flavor. 

Poor to fair potential for juice. Good sauce and slices. Limited use for 
fresh market. 



Sinta 

Golden Delicious x Grimes Golden. From Summerland, named 1970. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Harvested early to mid October. 
Acceptable fruit condition (pressure test 5.0 kg) when processed late 
November; probably better if processed sooner. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 25. Very good color. Fair flavor. 

Good potential for juice. Good for sauce and slices. 



Sir Prize 

Complex parentage including Rome Beauty, Malus floribunda 821, Golden 
Delicious, and Tetraploid (2-4-4) Golden Delicious, Doud. From cooperative 
breeding programs at Indiana, Illinois, New Jersey, and United States 
Department of Agriculture experiment stations. Released 1975. Scab-resistant. 

Grown at Saint-Jean and Smithfield. Vigorous tree, upright spreading, 
annually productive, triploid, cold-tender. Fruit has waxy skin, bruises 
easily; not for supermarket trade. Harvested mid October. Slightly soft 
(pressure test 5.0 kg) when processed early December; should be processed late 
November. Tested 4 years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium to high soluble solids. 
High to very high titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 14. Low tannin. Good 
color. Fair flavor. 

Fair to good potential for juice. High-acid tart flavor could be useful 
in blends with bland-tasting cultivars. Color and flavor have varied widely 



34 



from one year to another. Good sauce (bright yellow color a strong point). 
Fair sliced packs. Not suitable for fresh market. 



Smoothee 

A true Golden Delicious mutation. 

Grown at Smithfield. Harvested mid October. Good fruit condition when 
processed mid December, although fruit surface tends to shrivel in the same 
way as Golden Delicious. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Pulp settled well. High soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 30. Good color. Fair flavor. 

Fair to good potential for juice; high soluble solids desirable for 
upgrading other cultivars, but juice yield limiting. Good sauce, fair slices. 



Spartan 

Mcintosh x Newtown. Summerland, 1936. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Vigorous tree, upright spreading, 
somewhat spurred, heavy cropper, usually annual, hardy, very sensitive to 
European canker. Harvested late September. Very good firm fruit (pressure 
test 6.0 to 6.3 kg) when processed late December; good for processing November 
to January. Tested 6 years for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium to high soluble 
solids. Low to medium titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 28. Low tannin. 
Good to excellent color. Good flavor. 

Good potential for juice, although some years acidity is low. Fair sauce, 
poor slices. Good fresh market apple. 

Spigold 

Red Spy x Golden Delicious. New York, 1962. 

Has been grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. Vigorous tree, upright spreading, annually productive, moderately 
tender. A triploid. Very large fruit size. Harvested late October. Good 
firm fruit (pressure test 6.5-7.0 kg) when processed mid December; probably 
best processed December to January. Tested 3 years for juice. 

Good juice yield. Pulp settled well. High soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 24. Good color. Excellent flavor. 



35 



Good potential for juice; soluble solids and flavor desirable for 
upgrading other cultivars while maintaining other properties at good levels. 
Good sauce. Excellent for sliced packs (bright intense yellow, excellent 
flavor, good wholeness retention, tender texture). 



Spijon 

Parents include Red Spy, Jonathan, and Rome. Geneva, New York, named 1968. 

Has been grown at Saint- Jean and Sraithfield; currently grown at 
Smithfield. Harvested late October. Good firm fruit (pressure test 
6.4-7.0)when processed mid December; could be processed December to January. 
Tested 3 years for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 19. Good to excellent color. Fair 
flavor. 

Good potential for juice, although juice yield may be low some years. 
Good to excellent sauce, fair slices. 

Stoke Red 

A "bittersharp" cider apple from the United Kingdom. 

Grown at Saint-Jean as well as in the United Kingdom. The fruit sample we 
processed was shipped by air from the United Kingdom; small fruit, slightly 
shriveled and unattractive when received. Processed early October, at which 
time the fruit, although slightly soft, had a pressure test of 6.0 kg. Tested 
1 year for juice. 

Fair to good juice yield. High soluble solids. High titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 19. Very high tannin. Poor color. Poor flavor. 

Low potential for juice but excellent for making cider, the fermented 
product having a distinctly clean flavor with no hint of the undesirable, odd, 
ester-like flavors sometimes described as perfumy. Used to upgrade tannin, 
acidity, flavor, and soluble solids in cider blends. No information available 
for sauce and slices. 



Summerred 

Open-pollinated seedling of Summerland S-4-8 (Mcintosh x Golden 
Delicious). Introduced 1964. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Vigorous tree, spreading, blooms 
early, bears early, tendency to biennial bearing. Harvested mid August. 



36 



Fruit very soft when processed early November; not a good test; should be 
processed sooner, about September. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Poor juice yield. Medium to high soluble solids. Medium to high 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 15. Low tannin. Good color. Fair 
flavor. 

Potentially a good cultivar for juice but more testing needed using fruit 
of proper maturity. No information available for sauce and slices. Good 
early fresh market apple. 



Sungold 

Parentage unknown. Introduced by A. Cuggiano, Bridgeton, N.J. in 1961. 

Grown at Smithfield. Harvested mid October. Good fruit condition 
(pressure test 5.4 kg) when processed late November. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Poor juice yield. Pulp settled well. High soluble solids. Low 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 34. Good color. Fair flavor. 

Low potential for juice based on the one year tested. Good sauce, fair to 
good slices (color a strong point). 

Tremlett's Bitter 

A "bittersweet" cider apple from the United Kingdom. 

Grown in the United Kingdom and at Saint- Jean, where the trees froze out. 
The fruit sample we processed was shipped by air from the United Kingdom; 
small fruit, shriveled and unattractive when received but gave a pressure test 
of 6.4 kg. Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. High soluble solids. Low titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 47. Very high tannin. Poor color. Fair flavor. 

Low potential for juice but excellent for making cider, the fermented 
product having a distinctly clean flavor with no hint of the undesirable, odd, 
ester-like flavors sometimes described as perfumy. Used to upgrade tannin, 
flavor, and soluble solids in cider blends. No information available for 
sauce and slices. 



Trent 

Parents include Mcintosh, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Malus floribunda 
821. Formerly 0-531, from Ottawa breeding program, introduced from 
Smithfield, named 1979. Scab-resistant. 



37 



Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Semi-spreading tree needing careful 
training to prevent upright growth, requires a long growing season, bears 
annually. Harvested mid to late Octber. Good firm fruit (pressure test 7.0 
kg) when processed late January; could be processed even later. Stores well 
until April. Tested 4 years for juice. 

Poor to fair juice yield. Pulp settled well. Medium high soluble 
solids. Medium titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 22. Low tannin. Good 
color. Fair flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. Good sauce and slices. Also suitable as a 
fresh market apple. 



Vista Bella 

Parents include Julyred, Melba, Sonora, Williams, Starr, Petrel, and Early 
Mcintosh. Formerly NJ36, introduced 1963 from New Jersey, named 1974. 

Grown at Saint- Jean and Smithfield. Vigorous tree, more difficult to thin 
than other early apples, does not drop excessively. Harvested early August. 
Soft when processed late August; should be processed soon after harvest. 
Tested 1 year for juice. 

Fair juice yield. Pulp settled poorly. Low soluble solids. Very high 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 10. Medium tannin. Excellent color. 
Good flavor. 

Low potential for juice. Limited to very early season processing. No 
information available for sauce and slices. 



West Virginia Red York 

Bud mutation of York Imperial. 

Grown at Smithfield. This very firm long-storing cultivar is grown 
commercially in the eastern United States for processing. Harvested late 
October. Fruit very firm (pressure test 7.0-9.0 kg) when processed late 
January. Despite the high pressure test in late January, its flavor was not 
that of immature fruit. Developed internal corky areas and had to be 
processed while still very firm. Tested 2 years for juice. 

Poor juice yield. Pulp settled well. High soluble solids. Medium 
titratable acid. Sugar-to-acid ratio 28. Fair color. Good flavor. 

Fair potential for juice. Good to excellent sauce and slices for which 
its color, texture, wholeness retention, and flavor properties are well 
suited. Not a fresh market apple. 



38 



Yarlington 

A "bittersweet" cider apple from the United Kingdom. Can be obtained from 
Dr. R.R. Williams, University of Bristol, Long Ashton, Bristol, England. 
Formerly grown at Saint-Jean (survived the severe winter of 1980-1981). Good 
fruit condition (pressure test 5.5-6.0 kg) when processed mid November. 
Tested 1 year for juice. 

Poor juice yield. High soluble solids. Low titratable acid. 
Sugar-to-acid ratio 48. Very high tannin. Very poor (orange) color. Poor 
flavor (very sweet and mild). 

No potential for juice but good for making cider, where its high tannin 
and soluble solids are useful in fermented cider blends. No value for sauce, 
slices, or the fresh market. 



SUMMARY OF PROMISING CULTIVARS TESTED 

0-521 Scab-resistant. Good orchard and juice yields. High 

acidity, along with good color and flavor, permits upgrading of 
low-acid apples in blends. 

0-5410 Scab-resistant, with other properties acceptable, based on 1 
year's test. 

0-564 Scab-resistant, with other properties acceptable, based on 1 

year's test. 

0-591 Scab-resistant. Good juice yield, color, and flavor, along 

with high acidity and medium soluble solids, permit upgrading 
in blends. 

0-637 Scab-resistant. Good juice yie color, and flavor, along 

with high acidity and medium sol^ole solids, permit upgrading 

in blends. 

0-6310 Scab-resistant, with other properties acceptable. 

0-642 Scab-resistant. Good orchard and juice yields. Other 

properties in medium or good range, although flavor only fair. 

BC10C-6-12 High acidity and good color, with other properties acceptable, 
could be useful in blends. Good for sauce and sliced packs as 
well. 

Co-op 1 Scab-resistant. Good juice yield, excellent color, high 
acidity, medium soluble solids. Only lacking in flavor. 

P1673-1 Good juice yield, color, and flavor, along with medium soluble 
solids and acidity, based on 1 year's test. 



39 



Brown's Apple 



Not for juice but good for making cider, the fermented product 
being of high quality. Medium tannin and soluble solids, 
along with high acidity, are useful in blending with other 
cultivars for cider. 



Cortland 



Generally good properties except only fair juice yield . 
Popular cultivar in Quebec for other uses as well. 



Cox's Orange 
Pippin 



Very high soluble solids and high acidity, 
flavor, and juice yield. 



Good color, 



Empire 



One of the best prospects for juice: excellent color, good 
flavor, medium soluble solids and acidity, fair to good juice 
yield. Also good for sauce and sliced packs. Currently 
popular with growers. 



Guttingen Although juice yield only fair the 1 year tested, its high 
acidity, medium tannin, excellent color, good flavor, and 
medium soluble solids suggest its usefulness for upgrading in 
juice and cider blends. 

Idared Fruit has exceptionally long storage life. Good to excellent 
color and flavor, with soluble solids, acidity, tannin, and 
juice yield all in the medium range. 

Jerseymac Except for low to medium soluble solids and fair to good 

flavor, all juice properties were good the 2 years tested. 
May be useful for early juice production. 



Kestrel 
Loyalist 



All juice properties rated good, with none outstanding. 

Fruit stores exceptionally well without losing quality. 
Excellent juice color, good flavor, high soluble solids, 
medium acidity, and fair juice yield. Also good for sauce and 
sliced packs. Useful cultivar, combining generally good 
qualities over a long storage period. 



Mac free 
Mcintosh 



Scab-resistant, with other properties acceptable. 

All juice properties acceptable, in the good or medium range. 
Popular cultivar with growers. 



Melba 



Moira 



Useful for early juice production except for low soluble 
solids. Excellent color and flavor, medium tannin, high 
acidity, fair to good juice yield. 

Scab-resistant. Good juice yield and flavor, excellent color, 
with medium soluble solids and acidity. 



Mutsu 



Although juice yield only fair, all other properties in the 
good or medium range. Excellent for sauce. 



40 



Northern Spy 



Paulared 



Excellent flavor, high soluble solids, and good color upgrade 
these properties in blends while maintaining other 
properties. Popular high-quality versatile standard for 
juice, sauce, sliced packs, and cooking in the home. 

One of the better quality and longer storing early season 
apples. Good juice yield and flavor, high acidity, medium 
soluble solids. 



Sinta 
Sir Prize 
Spartan 
Spigold 



Very good juice color and good yield, with other properties 
in the medium range. Also good for sauce and sliced packs. 

Scab-resistant. High soluble solids and acidity along with 
good juice yield and color. Also makes good sauce. 

All juice properties acceptable, in the good or medium 
range. Popular fresh market variety. 

One of the best prospects. Excellent flavor and high soluble 
solids, along with good juice yield, good color, and medium 
acidity, make this cultivar useful for upgrading quality in 
blends. As well, excellent for sliced packs and good for 
sauce . 



Stoke Red 



Tremlett's 
Bitter 



Not for juice but good for making cider, the fermented 
product being of high quality. Very high tannin, high 
acidity, and high soluble solids are useful in upgrading 
these properties in blends with other cultivars for cider 
production. 

Not for juice but good for making cider, the fermented product 
being of high quality. Very high tannin and high soluble 
solids are useful in blends with other cultivars for cider. 



Yarlington 



Not for juice but good for making cider. Very high tannin 
and high soluble solids are useful properties in blends with 
other cultivars for cider.